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This exchange guide explains what the Deutsche Börse Group (DBG) is, which other exchanges are part of the collective group, and what services they offer to traders.

Read on to find out about what products DBG offers, who the leading executive board members are, and what types of memberships traders have access to.

We also cover the brief history of Deutsche Börse.

What is the Deutsche Börse Group?

Deutsche Börse Group (DBG) is a German-based financial services company and one of the largest exchange organizations in the world.

The company operates an integrated business model.

DBG’s activities cover every phase of the market life cycle from capital formation, trading, clearing, and settlement through to the custody of securities:

What Services Does Deutsche Börse Offer?

Deutsche Börse Exchanges & Products

Deutsche Börse operates several exchange brands for trading its products.

Traders can transact business in three categories of asset classes/products:

  • Cash / Spot market: Transactions in which delivery and payment take place shortly after the transaction is concluded
  • Derivatives: Securities that derive their value from the performance of another instrument such as an asset, index, or interest rate. Futures and options are the most commonly traded derivatives.
  • Foreign Exchange: Currency markets

History of the Deutsche Börse Group

The following timeline lists some key events in the history of Deutsche Börse Group:

Who Are the Deutsche Börse Group Executives?

The Executive Board of Deutsche Börse Group consists of five individuals who oversee the management of the daily operations of the exchange group.

Images sourced from https://www.deutsche-boerse.com/dbg-en/investor-relations/corporate-governance/executive-board

Does Deutsche Börse Group Have Vendor Partners?

Deutsche Börse Group works with many Independent Software Vendors (ISVs) to supply data to market participants.

You can obtain a full list of these vendors along with their products and contact information at the Deutsche Börse website.

How is the Deutsche Börse Group Regulated?

Deutsche Börse Group touts as its objective the operation of “efficient, secure and transparent markets.”

As one of the largest exchange organizations in the world, Deutsche Börse Group operates in a highly regulated environment. Its activities fall under the jurisdiction of many regulatory agencies and laws throughout Germany and Europe.

How Does The Deutsche Börse Group Participate To Regulatory Compliance?

Deutsche Börse Group monitors and actively participates in discussions on national and European market regulation and closely follows global regulatory trends.

The exchange group also produces statements, white papers, and studies that outline the challenges regarding market regulation.

The company aims to offer possible regulatory solutions, too. Publications can be found on the Deutsche Börse Group website.

Types Of Exchange Regulation

Regulation of Deutsche Börse Group exchanges takes place at three levels:

  1. Exchange
  2. State
  3. Federal

Organizations at each of these levels complement each other in carrying out the rules of the exchanges and enforcing market regulations.

What Is DBG’s Exchange Regulation?

The Trading Surveillance Office (TSO) is an independent supervisory body in Deutsche Börse Group.

Its responsibilities include monitoring the proper conduct of exchange trading as well as the pricing process.

TSO oversees price fixing on the exchange as well as electronic trading on Xetra® and Eurex®.

If TSO notices irregularities in trading, it notifies supervisory bodies and management boards of the exchange. In some cases, TSO notifies BaFin (see below).

What Is DBG’s State Regulation?

The state-level agency responsible for the regulation of Deutsche Börse exchanges is the Exchange Supervisory Authority (ESA).

This organization has similar responsibilities as TSO, but at the state level:

  1. Pricing processes
  2. Supervision of the proper conduct of trading
  3. Investigation of violations of the Exchange Act
How Does The ESA Work?

The Exchange Supervisory Authority examines irregularities reported to it by TSO. In addition, it may conduct its own supervision of markets.

Along with the Disciplinary Committee and the management boards of the exchanges, the Exchange Supervisory Authority may also impose sanctions on market participants.

It also approves the rules and regulations of the Frankfurt Stock Exchange and Eurex.

What Is DBG’s Federal Regulation?

The Federal Financial Supervisory Authority (BaFin) is responsible for investigating cases of suspected insider trading and market manipulation at the federal level.

BaFin is an independent federal institution and financial regulatory authority in Germany.

Legislation in 2002 merged three predecessor agencies and empowered BaFin as the principal financial regulator.

How Does the Deutsche Börse Group Conduct Trading?

Trading models on Deutsche Börse Group exchanges vary by asset class.

However, all venues employ trading models that define the following factors:

  • Order types
  • Price determination rules
  • Matching principles
  • Order handling (or auction types)

Cash Market Trading With Deutsche Börse

  1. Xetra
  2. Frankfurt Exchange
  3. Tradegate

What Does Xetra Offer Traders?

Xetra offers the “continuous trading with auctions” service for trading liquid securities.

This service combines auctions, which occur three times a day, with continuous trading at other times. Traders can enter the market or limit orders and specify additional execution conditions and validity constraints (e.g., conditional orders).

More, traders can consult the Market Model for the Trading Venue Xetra manual for additional details on how Xetra conducts trading.

Designated sponsors are banks and broker-dealers that are exchange members and provide liquidity in less liquid issues. Designated sponsors must adhere to minimum criteria for posting bids and offers and providing liquidity.

What Does Frankfurt Börse Offer Traders?

The trading instruments on the Frankfurt Börse necessitate different models for trading than those offered on Xetra:

Since less liquid shares, funds and bonds trade on the Frankfurt Börse, the exchange employs specialists to provide liquidity.

Market makers make structured products more appealing to trade by adding additional liquidity

What Does Tradegate Offer Traders?

Tradegate allows order types with intelligent control. This market model is described in the Terms and Conditions section of Tradegate.

Derivatives Markets With Deutsche Börse

DBG’s three derivatives exchanges are:

  1. Eurex Exchange
  2. Eurex Repo
  3. EEX Group

The main feature of the Eurex market model is the central limit order book. Traders enter all orders and quotes into this book during the trading day.

eurex

Types Of Derivatives Orders

Eurex traders can enter seven types of orders on the exchange:

  1. Limit Orders
  2. Market Orders
  3. Closing Auction Limit Orders
  4. Closing Auction Market Orders
  5. Book-or-Cancel Orders
  6. Stop Market Orders
  7. One-Cancels-The-Other Orders

Eurex also supports strategy trading including:

  1. Futures Combinations: time spreads, packs & bundles, strips, inter-product spreads
  2. Standard Options Strategies
  3. Non-Standard Options Strategies
  4. Option Volatility Strategies: Option legs against an underlying futures leg or, in the case of equity options, the exchange of shares

Traders can consult the Eurex website for additional details about how the exchange conducts trading.

What Types of Memberships Does DBG Offer?

Each Deutsche Börse Group exchange has its own individual policies and applications for membership.

In addition, each exchange has its own classes of membership. Traders should consult the Deutsche Börse website for specific details.

Deutsche Börse notes the following about traders and trading companies on the vast majority of their trading venues:

  1. They have to meet strict requirements
  2. They have to be considered reliable
  3. They have to possess the required professional skills (relevant expertise and practical experience) to prove their suitability.

Does Deutsche Börse Provide Training?

Some Deutsche Börse trading venues require examinations of traders as part of the admissions process.

Deutsche Börse Group and its related companies offer training courses and examination materials for prospective traders.

Deutsche Börse Group’s Margins & Clearing Houses

Deutsche Börse Group operates two main clearinghouses – Eurex Clearing AG and European Commodity Clearing AG.

The acquisition of North American Nodal Exchange by Deutsche Börse Group subsidiary EEX Group has added a third exchange for Nodal Exchange customers.

These clearinghouses act as central counterparties (they are buyers to sellers and sellers to buyers) on all transactions on Deutsche Börse exchanges.

Each of these clearinghouses employs the necessary procedures to protect market integrity and safeguard market participants from systemic risk.

Each clearinghouse also tries to balance market safeguards with the optimization of capital efficiency. Specific margin requirements vary among the clearing houses.

How Does The Eurex Clearing Margin Work?

Eurex employs two main methods for the calculation of traders’ margin requirements:

  1. Risk Based Margining (RBM)
  2. Eurex Clearing Prisma

Risk Based Margining

Eurex previously offered the RBM Calculator, which is a computer-based simulation program to calculate and simulate margin.

The program allowed traders to calculate margin on both new and existing positions for listed derivatives, equities, and bonds cleared by Eurex Clearing.

Eurex Clearing decommissioned RBM at the end of 2015 and mandated that clients migrate to the newer Eurex Clearing Prisma risk margin system).

Eurex Clearing Prisma

Eurex Clearing Prisma is the newest method for calculating margin requirements for exchange participants.

Eurex Clearing Prisma offers two different margin calculators for customers of the exchange.

The Prisma Online Margin Calculator is a browser-based calculator for Members running on Eurex Clearing’s production and simulation environments.

The Prisma Margin Estimator (PME) is a newer calculator that offers enhanced margin analysis capabilities.

European Commodity Clearing Margin

ECC is a Central Counterparty (CCP) licensed under European Markets Infrastructure Regulation (EMIR).

In the development of its margin system, ECC works closely with partner exchanges, clearing members and the financial supervisory authority.

ECC uses two main types of margin:

  • Spot Margin: ECC measures credit exposure on a real-time basis 24/7 using Current Exposure Spot Margin (CESM). Spot traders must post Initial Margin Spot Market (IMSM), which serves as a buffer to cover exposure from movements in spot markets. Any margin shortfalls must be covered immediately with additional collateral.
  • SPAN® Margin Model: ECC uses the SPAN® Margin Model to calculate futures and options margin on at least a daily basis. Traders generally have to post an initial margin based on the riskiness of a position and any possible offsets ECC may apply. Sometimes ECC will require additional margin to account for factors such as illiquidity, concentration risk in an asset class, or other factors.

Nodal Clear

Nodal Clear uses an expected shortfall methodology for its initial margin calculations.

The calculation is designed to cover an expected two-day loss to a 99.7% confidence level.

Traders’ Fees & Charges At Deutsche Börse

Each Deutsche Börse Group exchange has its own exchange and clearing fees.

Traders can find a list of these fees under the section for the respective exchange.

What Market Data is Available?

Deutsche Börse Group makes a variety of different types of market data available to its customers. The exchange group also makes regulatory services available to its customers.

Real-time market data: Market participants can obtain real-time data either directly though the exchange or through authorized vendor partners of the exchange.

Types Of Real-Time Data Offered By DBG

Deutsche Börse Group offers real-time data in the following products:

  1. Spot markets
  2. Derivatives markets
  3. Indices
  4. Energy and Commodities
  5. European spot markets
  6. Fixed income
  7. FX markets
  8. Asian markets
  9. The exchange group also offers two MiFID services

Analytics, Historical, & Referenced Data

The exchanges offer real-time order book and trade analytics that cover market liquidity and trends:

  1. Eurex IOC Liquidity Indicator for Options
  2. Eurex Real-time Analytics
  3. Intraday Volatility Forecast
  4. Risk Alerts
  5. Xetra Real-time Analytics

The exchange also provides historical data, which allows traders to back-test trading strategies, and reference data that allows vendors to accurately disseminate data to other market participants.

What Educational Materials Are On Offer?

Deutsche Börse operates Capital Markets Academy, which offers training in a variety of capital markets subjects. The Academy offers several ways for market participants to learn:

Training for Trading Exams

The Academy offers on-site training to prepare market participants for the exams administered by the exchanges.

Both the Frankfurt Stock Exchange and Eurex Germany require the certification of traders through examinations.

Certificate Programs With The DBG Academy

The Academy offers on-site certification programs for both clearing and trading. Traders can be certified in two categories: Certified Financial Engineer and Certified Derivatives Trader.

Clearing participants can receive a designation as a Certified Clearing Specialist.

DBG Academy Live Seminars

The Academy offers seminars and systems training for trading, back office and capital markets professionals.

Other E-Learning Opportunities

Traders can obtain basic stock exchange knowledge free of charge at the Frankfurt Exchange website. In addition, the Eurex website offers e-lectures for the Certified Derivatives Trader certificate program.

How Can I Start Trading?

Many regulated brokerage firms worldwide offer traders ways to speculate on assets traded on Deutsche Börse Group exchanges.

CFDs are complex instruments and come with a high risk of losing money rapidly due to leverage. <b>Between 74%-89% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs.</b> You should consider whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money.

Further Reading

Learn more about the world’s largest commodity exchanges including:

If you’d like a primer on how to trade commodities in general, please see our introduction to commodity trading.

We also have guides on different tradable products like CFDs, options, stocks, forex, cryptocurrencies, and bullions.

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